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    LUNA founder Do Kwon bets $10 million on price one year from now


    Key Factors

    • The most important dangers to Terram and the place its worth shall be in a single yr
    • Why LUNA isn’t competing in opposition to Ethereum
    • Can 20% yield final on Anchor, and is it protected to make use of as your checking account?

    The Guess

    Crypto generally is a weird place. I don’t know of every other business the place billionaires reply to nameless Twitter customers goading them into multi-million greenback bets.

    However that’s precisely what we noticed final week, as “Sensei Algod”, an nameless Twitter account describing himself as a “semi-retired degen, now investing” known as out to Twitter enquiring if anybody would wager a million {dollars} that LUNA can be buying and selling at a lower cost in a yr.

    The stakes then elevated. Fellow anon account @GiganticRebirth waded in. This man describes himself as a “retired dealer” and “2024 Presidential candidate”. Has Donald Trump managed to anonymously creep his method again onto Twitter? Or perhaps it’s a Kanye West burner account – he nonetheless intends to run in 2024, proper? Whoever he’s, he upped the stakes to $10 million {dollars}.

    Subsequent to enter the fray was the large canine himself, Terra founder Do Kwon. The multi-billionaire is usually vulnerable to taking the bait on Twitter, passionately defending the Terra ecosystem in opposition to critics.  

    And similar to that, girls and gents, we had ourselves a wager. It’s wonderful what just a few huge egos can accomplish when within the public eye, isn’t it?

    Luna – One Yr Forecast

    So, who’s going to win? The place does LUNA commerce at, let’s say, St Patrick’s Day 2023?

    Let’s take a dive into LUNA and take a look at confirm which aspect will come out on high. If you happen to disagree with me, you possibly can name me out on Twitter and I’ll put my cash the place my mouth is (though, let’s decrease the stakes from $10 million to $10).

    The fundamentals, tremendous fast: LUNA is the token upon which the Terra ecosystem runs. Terra’s worth is derived from a collection of stablecoins, essentially the most distinguished of which is UST. As UST demand rises, Luna is burnt, and as UST demand falls, LUNA is minted. In such a method, the peg is maintained – a fairly neat algorithmic mechanism that works off the ideas of arbitrage.

    The underside line that we have to perceive right here is that the LUNA worth depends on UST adoption. As extra UST is demanded, LUNA is burnt and the value will rise.

    Complete Worth Locked

    Trying on the DeFi panorama, there’s a complete of $206 billion in complete worth locked (TVL). Terra captures 12.3% of this, with $25 billion in TVL. Thus, behind solely the dominant Ethereum (55% share of TVL at $114 billion), Terra sits because the second largest DeFi platform by TVL.

    Knowledge through Defi Llama

    Ethereum’s issues want no introduction. Out in the actual world, individuals are shocked at gasoline costs following the Russian invasion provide shock. In fact, if anybody has transacted on Ethereum earlier than, these real-world gasoline costs nonetheless appear low-cost in comparison with on the blockchain.

    However an “ETH-killer” isn’t actually Terra’s recreation. It may well prosper alongside Ethereum, these two don’t should be rivals. But, once we plot the TVL over time, it’s clear that Terra is profitable DeFi market share.  

    Share of DeFi TVL, information through Defi Llama

    Now keep in mind, as we outlined earlier, the expansion in LUNA is immediately contingent upon UST adoption. It follows that with this enlargement in TVL within the Terra platform, we might count on to see a progress in UST, proper?

    Market Cap of UST, information through CoinMarketCap

    Because the above graph exhibits, that’s precisely what has occurred. The expansion has been electrical – spiking from a market cap of simply above $2 billion final August to the place it presently sits, at $15 billion. Which means it’s the fourteenth largest cryptocurrency. Extra importantly, it’s the fourth largest stablecoin. As a result of Terra’s competitors just isn’t Ethereum; Terra’s competitors is different stablecoins.

    It follows that the above graph that’s the key for LUNA. If Terra can proceed to wrestle management of the stablecoin market, then LUNA’s worth will rise. Terra wants elevated adoption of UST to proceed; it wants UST to change into a dominant stablecoin, an important a part of the DeFi business.

    So, let’s assess what’s inflicting this stablecoin progress.

    One of many above stablecoins just isn’t like the opposite – that’s proper, Terra’s distinctive promoting level is that it boasts that all-important high quality of decentralisation. Not one of the above rivals provide this – Tether’s centralised nature (and questionable reserve standing) is nicely publicised, whereas USD Coin is issued by Circle. Binance USD is a part of the BNB juggernaut. All these cash, due to this fact, are managed by establishments. Property will be frozen at will and belief within the issuing organisation is required.

    Terra, then again, is totally decentralised, managed through the algorithmic peg described earlier. You simply must have religion that the peg holds, however extra on that later…

    For traders to carry UST, there needs to be an incentive. There have to be a collection of monetary merchandise on the Terra ecosystem by way of which traders can obtain their monetary targets – be this borrowing, lending, shopping for shares, transacting day-to-day and so on.

    That is the place Terra is excelling. To call however a pair, Mirror permits one to purchase shares, Chai is a funds app gaining growing reputation in Korea, whereas there are myriad different apps in growth.

    However there may be one platform which is driving extra progress than every other – Anchor. The borrowing and lending protocol affords lenders the chance to earn a yield shut to twenty% on UST, which has led many shoppers to transform their fiat into UST and deal with Achor as a de-facto financial savings account.

    It’s been the largest push issue behind the expansion of LUNA. As beforehand sky-high yields within the DeFi house have evaporated, cash has poured into the Anchor protocol to seize the 20% yield, among the many highest obtainable “protected” yields available on the market. UST market cap has thus swelled, with LUNA worth going vertical. However is it really “protected”?

     TVL progress of Anchor has been steep, information through DeFi Llama

    Because the above graph exhibits, there may be presently $13.3 billion TVL in Anchor, the protocol representing a chunky 52% of the TVL within the Terra ecosystem – so sure, it’s essential.

    However can this 20% yield final, and is it protected? Answering this query is significant to any future worth prediction of LUNA.

    Let’s break the numbers down. I put collectively a easy mannequin of the Anchor financials under, and the way they stack up.


    • $2.6 billion of borrowings. The platform presently fees debtors 12.25%.
    • $4.3 billion of (bonded) LUNA and $1.1 billion of (bonded) Ethereum is provided by those self same debtors as collateral in opposition to their loans. Anchor makes use of this collateral to earn staking yield, thus producing further revenue to pay lenders (presently circa. 7% for LUNA and 4.3% for Ethereum).


    • Chasing that 19.5% yield, there may be $10.5 billion of deposits in Anchor
    • 19.5% is the yield paid out, equating to a needed $2 billion of annual funds

    I ran the numbers on the above figures, with the output in a diagram under. As you possibly can see, there’s a shortfall of $1.4 billion yearly on the present figures. Which is an issue, largely derived from the truth that borrowing demand has dried up amid the lagging crypto market of current instances. On the opposite aspect of the coin (pun kind of meant), increasingly more shoppers are depositing funds to earn the 19.5% yield.  

    So, how is that soiled pink quantity fastened?

    Anchor Printing

    The system cheats, that’s how. The Anchor protocol itself has a local token. Borrowing demand is definitely being fuelled by the printing of those Anchor tokens, which incentivises borrowing through decrease rates of interest.

    This Anchor printing, which causes the token to be very inflationary, is capped at 100 million tokens for the primary 4 years, and it’s already working at its most fee. On the present worth of $2.99 per Anchor token, that equates to $299 million that’s being printed every year and given to debtors, in an effort to prop up borrowing demand. And borrowing is nonetheless considerably lower than the place it must be to maintain the deposit curiosity.

    As soon as this Anchor printing terminates, I count on the mercenary debtors emigrate elsewhere. Debtors will now not be keen to A) hand over the staking yield on their collateral property and B) additionally pay the upper rate of interest. And this, the truth is, is precisely what we have now seen in different DeFi protocols – the migration of capital elsewhere as soon as the preliminary gold rush dries up. So, the above chasm may really widen.

    Yield Reserve

    Secondly, there’s something known as a Yield Reserve, which is a fund designed to high up the protocol when borrowing and lending demand is out of whack, akin to proper now. The present yield reserve holds $423 million, however solely after having been topped up by $450 million final month by Do Kwon himself. This yield reserve is designed to complement the curiosity Anchor pays out to depositers when it falls in need of the 19.5%. By my calculations, this $423 million is sufficient to plug the shortfall for 111 days at present charges.

    Do Kwon shared the above tweet on Twitter final month, after he topped up the Yield Reserve by $450 million


    This clearly doesn’t paint an optimistic image for sustainability of the 19.5%. Nevertheless, we’re leaving some details out. Anchor is a protocol which launched nearly a yr in the past to the day (March twenty first 2021). And it has $13.3 billion in TVL. That’s forward of virtually all different protocols, quite a lot of which have been round for over twice the period of time.

    No – the speed isn’t sustainable. In fact it isn’t – if it was, there can be one thing completely unsuitable. You possibly can’t go round incomes a juicy 20% long run for nothing, when the remainder of the world is scraping by off the breadcrumbs of the bottom fee atmosphere in years. There is perhaps such factor as a free lunch now and again, however not indefinitely, because the well-known saying goes.

    So, the yield reserve would require topping up once more.

    However, so what? Like I stated, Anchor is a yr previous. Do you assume it’s uncommon for start-ups to require money injections a yr into their lifespan? We have to cease trying on the swelling deposits as a unfavorable, and begin appreciating the sheer quantity of them – $10 billion in a yr! The yield reserve high ups ought to merely be considered as start-up bills whereas Anchor finds its toes. The beginning-up is bootstrapping itself, let’s give it some respiratory room. Scroll as much as the UST market cap graph once more, and recognize the immense progress there, and the way little time that X-axis covers. This has been a vertical trip, which will be seen through the LUNA worth, too.

    Lengthy-Time period

    In fact, the topping up can’t go on eternally. Anchor must change into self-sustainable finally. Or, does it?

    Even when the deposit fee drops to 14%, that might nonetheless place among the many finest out there. And this shouldn’t be considered as a foul factor. It’s not the kiss of demise; it’s signal of the protocol maturing. And keep in mind – as this sediment fee drops, so will some deposit demand. Much less deposits means a better rate of interest payable. Identical to I forecasted earlier that the mercenary borrowing will take flight to different protocols as soon as Anchor printing ceases, we’ll see the identical on the deposit aspect if when the yield falls. Yield-chasers will transfer on.

    Because the above mannequin exhibits, the present sustainable fee is 6.29%. So, even with deposits 4X borrowings, the protocol can nonetheless pay out 6.29%. You assume your financial institution is paying you 6.29%? And that’s assuming no depositers flee if the speed drops. If we assume deposits fall 10%, and borrowings rise 10%, the balancing APR is 7.32% – a chunky rise of 103 bps in opposition to the present scenario. And once more, within the context of the broader market, a really wholesome yield.So let’s sit back with the eulogy preparations for Terra. Sure, the speed will completely fall from 19.5%. However that’s OK. You’ll nonetheless sleep at evening. You’ll nonetheless earn some yield. And, most related for this text, Terra (and LUNA) shall be completely tremendous.


    However there may be one different main danger I need to discuss. Like we stated earlier, the peg is maintained algorithmically through the legal guidelines of arbitrage. If UST trades above $1, it’s bought into LUNA till it’s again at $1, and vice-versa. However what if the promoting stress is so excessive? What would occur if everybody needs out of UST?

    Effectively, this has occurred earlier than. In instances of maximum market downturns, traders have needed no a part of UST. They need good previous fiat money. Let’s not neglect how ugly the crypto pink days can flip, and the way fast the sky can fall in crypto-land. 

    UST worth historical past – with two stark examples of the place the peg wobbled, through CoinMarketCap

    It’s not the sustainable fee on Anchor that’s the huge hazard. It’s the above graph. These pink plunges are terrifying while you’re holding UST. If the peg breaks, Terra goes underneath – that’s not up for debate.

    As will be seen above, Might 2021 is the newest instance of when the peg wobbled, with UST buying and selling at 95c. Which means individuals had been keen to take a 5% loss on their cash, simply to keep away from the possibility of shedding all their financial savings within the occasion UST collapsed. If Terra needs to be a good stablecoin, that merely can not occur underneath any circumstances. Would you settle for this at your fiat checking account?

    Akin to a run on the banks, if no person needs to carry UST, even when there are arbitrage alternatives obtainable, then there received’t be consumers. Would you purchase a one greenback notice for 95 cent in the event you felt there was an opportunity america may stop to exist tomorrow? No, you wouldn’t.

    In fact, that day in Might 2021 was when crypto markets melted down, with a flight to high quality occurring throughout the house. There have been ugly days since, however none as dangerous that day, when Bitcoin plummeted 30% within the house of hours.

    The excellent news is that, with each crash that UST survives, it turns into stronger. The ecosystem finally survived the stress take a look at, with Terra putting in additional safety measures to organize for these contingencies.

    Personally, I’m now snug with the peg scenario, however this stays – and can at all times stay – the only largest danger to the ecosystem. It’s also value noting that the market cap of UST has 7X from that point. In one other black swan occasion, this may ramp up promoting stress considerably larger than what we noticed again in Might 2021, when UST was smaller. There shall be considerably extra stress on LUNA if it has to soak up billions in promoting stress, and you may get a extra extreme stress take a look at consequently.  For me, nonetheless, the 19.5% yield is sufficient yield to compensate me for holding UST – however let’s not lose monitor of the dangers right here.


    So, it’s time to reply the ten million greenback query. The place will LUNA be buying and selling on St Patricks Day subsequent yr, once I’m hopefully in my native Eire sipping on a pint of Guinness in a crowded pub? Above or under $87?

    LUNA’s dominant worth motion over the past yr, through CoinMarketCap

    A yr is a very long time in crypto. What makes this query tough is the very fact we have to predict not solely LUNA’s future, however the crypto market as an entire. Though, what’s intriguing right here is the truth that LUNA is without doubt one of the least correlated cash with Bitcoin within the high 50. It’s because because the market turns down, traders promote their falling holdings into stablecoins, together with UST.

    This, greater than the rest, is what buoys my confidence in UST holding its peg, and the well being of the ecosystem at massive. What higher litmus take a look at than seeing how assured merchants are in holding the stablecoin as the broader market nosedives? That being stated, the LUNA worth would nonetheless endure within the occasion of a chronic crypto bear market, even when it holds up higher than different cash.

     The escrow tackle for the wager, containing $22 million. The blockchain confirms it – the bets are on!

    There’s a marketplace for a decentralised stablecoin, and LUNA doesn’t have a lot competitors right here. Throw within the apps which are in growth, and I see no cause that the ecosystem can not proceed to draw capital. I consider the market cap of UST shall be larger once more in a yr’s time.

    A heart-warming finish to the interplay

    Folks love yield, and the Anchor yield I consider will nonetheless be lofty – maybe nonetheless locked round 19% – in a yr’s time. I feel the speed can final for a yr, and that’s all that the wager asks me to do. I solely want this peg to carry for three hundred and sixty five days – and that’s the actual danger right here. The important thing right here is that point horizon of 1 yr.

    So, ye, given we’re speaking one yr, I’ll take the over on the wager.

    It’s boring to wager the underneath anyway, isn’t it?


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